Classification of Fires
CLASS A fires occur in ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth and paper. The most commonly used extinguishing agent is water which cools and quenches. Fires in these materials are also extinguished by special dry chemicals for use on Class A, B & C fires. These provide a rapid knock down of flame and form a fire retardant coating which prevents reflash.
CLASS B fires occur in the vapor-air mixture over the surface of flammable liquids such as grease, gasoline and lubricating oils. A smothering or combustion inhibiting effect is necessary to extinguish Class B fires. Dry chemical, foam, vaporizing liquids, carbon dioxide and water fog all can be used as extinguishing agents depending on the circumstances of the fire.
CLASS C fires occur in electrical equipment where non-conducting extinguishing agents must be used. Dry chemical, carbon dioxide, and vaporizing liquids are suitable. Because foam, water (except as a spray), and water-type extinguishing agents conduct electricity, their use can kill or injure the person operating the extinguisher, and severe damage to electrical equipment can result.
CLASS D fires occur in combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium and sodium. Specialized techniques, extinguishing agents and extinguishing equipment have been developed to control and extinguish fires of this type. Normal extinguishing agents generally should not be used on metal fires as there is danger in most cases of increasing the intensity of the fire because of a chemical reaction between some extinguishing agents and the burning metal.